Happy July 4th. What does it mean to you? July 4th means freedom to me and I continue to debate with myself which one of the two is the most important value to me, Freedom or Justice?
The essence of freedom is directly proportional to the ability to question oneself, to question our own faith and our own myths and prejudices about others and find answers to set ourselves free. When I read Abraham Lincoln’s statement in Dale Carnegie’s book way back in late sixties, “With malice towards none” I was moved. Years later, I have written in my will, that one day I am going to be completely free from prejudice, bias, malice and ill-will and if I do, I want my headstone to read “With Prejudice towards None”, or “Zero Prejudice”.
Thank God for America, where we cherish and value the freedom endowed to us by the creator. I chose to be an American and I am blessed to be one in my heart and the spirit.
No matter what our Pastor, Pundit, Rabbi, Imam, Shaman, clergy, teacher or politician tells us, we are the ones to deal with ourselves in our solitude. So, the responsibility to live freely rests squarely on our own shoulders. For every good we do a serene feeling gets uploaded and for the every wrong we do, that serenity gets depleted.
I have come to revere our constitution for the value it places on equality, freedom and justice. Indeed, I have to plug in for my mother land India, whose constitution was influenced by American constitution, both free nations run by the people for the people.
July 4th means freedom to me and I continue to debate with myself which one of the two is most important to value to me, Freedom or Justice?
The essence of freedom is directly proportional to the ability to question oneself, to question one's own faith, myths and prejudices about others and find answers to set oneself free. When I read Abraham Lincoln’s statement in Dale Carnegie’s book way back in late sixties, “With malice towards none” I was moved. Years later, I have written in my will, that one day I am going to be completely free from prejudice, bias, malice and ill-will and if I do, I want my headstone to read “With Prejudice towards None”, or “Zero Prejudice”.
Thank God for America, where we the people cherish and value the freedom endowed to us by the creator. I chose to be an American and I am blessed to be one in my heart and spirit.
No matter what our Pastor, Pundit, Rabbi, Imam, Shaman, clergy, teachers or our politicians tell us, we are the ones to deal with ourselves in our solitude. So, the responsibility to live freely rests squarely on our own shoulders. For every good we do a serene feeling gets uploaded and for the every wrong we do, that serenity gets depleted.
I have come to revere our constitution for the value it places on equality, freedom and justice. Indeed, I have to plug in for my mother land India, whose constitution was influenced by American constitution, both free nations run by the people for the people.
Seriously, we have to ask ourselves;
1. Am I free from bias towards other races?
2. Am I free from bias towards people of other religions?
3. Am I free from bias towards people of other nations?
4. Am I free from bias towards people with different life styles?
5. Am I free from bias towards people who do not have a degree?
6. Am I free from bias towards people who do “lesser” jobs than I do?
7. Am I free from overweening opinion of myself?
If we justify any one of these behaviors, we really need to sit down and analyze ourselves, for truth will set us free. Freedom is so beautiful, once you taste it; you get hooked on to it. Religiously, when Jesus says follow me, or Krishna says surrender to me, or Quraan says submit to the will of Allah and every one of the religion says the same thing… What are they saying? To become like God, to be free from conflict, free from bias, free from ill-will and to be one with the cosmic energy.
In your search for the truth, I hope you will discover that the hate for Jews, Muslims, Christians, Hindus or Americans, Arabs, Pakistanis, Indians, Koreans or someone else is binding and blinding you, it gets your blood pressure going, you get upset, you curse others… is it worth it? Friends free yourselves from all these bondages, you are not a slave, and be a free man or a woman. Hate is not the solution, co-existence is, you live your life and I will do mine together we can build a community for all of us to feel home.
I was irreligious for nearly thirty years, with love for all religions, but none for myself. I have developed a habit of randomly flipping through the pages of almost all of the Holy Scriptures at my home, one such event led me to this beautiful life changing phrase for me, “Finding the truth is one’s own responsibility” in Bhagvad Gita. Mahatma Gandhi asserted “Satyameva Jayate” truth ultimately triumphs. That’s what turned me to research the veracity of attacks on Islam, my former religion at that time. It set me free and thank God, I have taken extraordinary time to understand Quraan and have grasped the politics of misquotes and mistranslations and have rendered the findings in a Blog on Qur’aan.
I could have chosen to adapt any religion, as all of them are equally beautiful, my choice for Islam was my extensive research on Pluralism and co-existence that I found in Qur’aan, otherwise, I would have been fine as a Bahai, Buddhist, Christian, Choctaw, Hindu, Humanist, Jain, Jew, Maya, Sikh, Wicca and every tradition in between and the Zoroastrian. I cherish and honor every which way one worships or acknowledges the divine, one does not have to believe in God to be a good human to work with, live with, dine with or be friends with. Indeed, my pledge to myself is to defend the divinity of every religion with an open heart and an open mind.
PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE
"I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
Do the the right wingers recite this pledge of allegiance? Would they really say, "liberty and justice for all?"
ARE YOU READY FOR THIS?
Most of us are not ready for it, particularly our clergy but munch on this thought any way; isn't religion about humility? Every form of prayer is geared to remove arrogance, as it is the root cause of conflicts; humility is a catalyst to building bridges and understanding. Isn't claiming superiority of your religion amounts to arrogance? Doesn't it really keep you away from the essence of it? I have endured humiliating experiences, thank God for it, but I have to let it be known that, we will be free from arrogance within our life time and acknowledge the otherness of other with love and affection without losing an ounce of our own religion.
Now a few tid-bits about July 4th followed by the list of events that led to American independence, the declaration of independence, Bill of rights and the link to our national Anthem sourced form Library of Congress and Wikipedia.
Morocco was the first state to recognize the independence of the United States of America. The two countries signed the Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship ten years later. Friesland, one of the seven United Provinces of the Dutch Republic, was the next to recognize American independence (February 26, 1782), followed by the Staten-Generaal of the Dutch Republic on April 19, 1782. John Adams became the first US Ambassador in The Hague.
On April 3, 1783, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Count Gustaf Philip Creutz, representing the King of Sweden, and Benjamin Franklin, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce in Paris, France. In the Treaty, they pledged, firm, inviolable and universal peace and a true and sincere friendship between the King, his heirs and successors, and the United States of America.
Moin Ansari and Dr. Range Gowda historians of Tipu Sultan, a brave Indian patriot from the State of Mysore was allied with the French and was ready to overwhelm his rival Marhattas who were in bed with the British. Tipu’s policies were similar to those of the other patriot across the oceans, where General Washington allied with the French General LaFayette defeated British colonialism in America. On 4th of July 1776 Mysore along with Washington celebrated the American independence.
IN 1999 on the biannual centenary of Tipu Sultan’s death, Dr. Range Gowda and I had talked about celebrating July 4th in Sriranga patnam ( Tipu Sultans capital near the City of Mysore) and it never materialized. However, two brass busts were made of Tipu Sultan, one went to the Chief Minister of the State and the other one is with me here in Dallas.
Mike Ghouse is a speaker, thinker, writer, optimist, educator and an activist of Pluralism, Justice, Islam, India, Peace and Civil Societies. He is a conflict mitigater and a goodwill nurturer offering pluralistic solutions on issues of the day and is a frequent guest on the media. Mike's work is reflected at three websites & twenty two Blogs listed at http://www.mikeghouse.net/
Vanja, indeed, that is the truth, if you can make it here, you can make it everywhere. This nation continues to remain open to ideas, thoughts, cultures and diversity and that is the simple reason for its prosperity.
Ann, your quote takes me to Buddha, Prophet Muhammad and every spiritual Master; Buddha's four truths if followed, will set one free from misery and frustration; Muhammad's concept of Jihaad; conquering one's jelousies, hate, ill-will, malice, anger.... will lead one to be free.
Anoop, thanks for the comments, your first comment is wisdom studded.
Happy independence to ya'll.
Freedom and restrictions go hand in hand. The more advanced or civilized a society is, greater the restrictions. My friend Dr. Saleh Shariff was amazed at the restrictions on driving, parking etc we have in the United States, when he visited me in the early 80's ..
Indeed, the restictions offer freedom to drive freely knowing that the restrictions on all, assures me the freedom to be safe and drive without fear. Prophet Muhammad had once said, that he would like to see a society where a woman, a child or an old man can walk to Damascus without fear of any harassment. Dr. Rajagopalachari, India's first governor general had reiterated that by adding, whether it is day or night, one should feel the freedom to go anywhere any time without any fear and concluded, that is civility to me. Indeed, it is
Maha, indeed, both nations have opened their arms to others, it is the sense of security people have felt, they are not threatened by the otherness of other.
I hope the infractions among us in the last few years will go away and sustainable ideas grow and take a deeper root.The Statue of Liberty; "Give me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,... See MoreThe wretched refuse of your teeming shore.Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" And here is my write up about India;We are proud of our heritage - a multi-faith, multi-cultural, multi-regional and multi-linguistic society, where we have come to accept and respect every which way people have lived their lives.
For over 5000 years, India has been a beacon of pluralism - it has embraced Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Baha’i and Zoroastrianism to include in the array of the indigenous religions; Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
Here is the American National Anthem:http://www.mikeghouse.net/USATEXAS/nationalanthem.asp
U.S. National Anthem "The Star Spangled Banner" Composed by John Stafford Smith - lyrics Francis Scott Key
Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof thru the night that our flag was still there.
Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country should leave us no more!
Their blood has washed out of of their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave'
From the terror of flight and the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust."
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave
Listen to "The Star-Spangled Banner"
Read the modern score of "The Star-Spangled Banner"
American Flag Etiquette: http://www.mikeghouse.net/USATEXAS/etiquette.asp
American Flag Etiquette.
Federal law stipulates many aspects of flag etiquette. The section of law dealing with American Flag etiquette is generally referred to as the Flag Code. Some general guidelines from the Flag Code answer many of the most common questions:
The flag should be lighted at all times, either by sunlight or by an appropriate light source.
The flag should be flown in fair weather, unless the flag is designed for inclement weather use.
The flag should never be dipped to any person or thing. It is flown upside down only as a distress signal.
The flag should not be used for any decoration in general. Bunting of blue, white and red stripes is available for these purposes. The blue stripe of the bunting should be on the top.
The flag should never be used for any advertising purpose. It should not be embroidered, printed or otherwise impressed on such articles as cushions, handkerchiefs, napkins, boxes, or anything intended to be discarded after temporary use. Advertising signs should not be attached to the staff or halyard.
The flag should not be used as part of a costume or athletic uniform, except that a flag patch may be used on the uniform of military personnel, fireman, policeman and members of patriotic organizations.
The flag should never have any mark, insignia, letter, word, number, figure, or drawing of any kind placed on it, or attached to it.
The flag should never be used for receiving, holding, carrying, or delivering anything.
When the flag is lowered, no part of it should touch the ground or any other object; it should be received by waiting hands and arms. To store the flag it should be folded neatly and ceremoniously.
The flag should be cleaned and mended when necessary.
When a flag is so worn it is no longer fit to serve as a symbol of our country, it should be destroyed by burning in a dignified manner.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS LEADING TO JULY 4TH
Chronology of Events
Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, receives Richard Henry Lee's resolution urging Congress to declare independence.
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston appointed to a committee to draft a declaration of independence. American army retreats to Lake Champlain from Canada.
Jefferson, at the request of the committee, drafts a declaration, of which only a fragment exists. Jefferson's clean, or "fair" copy, the "original Rough draught," is reviewed by the committee. Both documents are in the manuscript collections of the Library of Congress.
A fair copy of the committee draft of the Declaration of Independence is read in Congress.
Congress debates and revises the Declaration of Independence.
Congress declares independence as the British fleet and army arrive at New York.
Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence in the morning of a bright, sunny, but cool Philadelphia day. John Dunlap prints the Declaration of Independence. These prints are now called "Dunlap Broadsides." Twenty-four copies are known to exist, two of which are in the Library of Congress. One of these was Washington's personal copy.
John Hancock, president of the Continental Congress, dispatches the first of Dunlap's broadsides of the Declaration of Independence to the legislatures of New Jersey and Delaware.
Pennsylvania Evening Post of July 6 prints the first newspaper rendition of the Declaration of Independence.
The first public reading of the Declaration is in Philadelphia.
Washington orders that the Declaration of Independence be read before the American army in New York
Congress orders the Declaration of Independence engrossed (officially inscribed) and signed by members.
Delegates begin to sign engrossed copy of the Declaration of Independence. A large British reinforcement arrives at New York after being repelled at Charleston, S.C.
Congress, now sitting in Baltimore, Maryland, orders that signed copies of the Declaration of Independence printed by Mary Katherine Goddard of Baltimore be sent to the states.
Source: Library of Congress
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America
hen in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.
— John Hancock
Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton
John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry
Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery
Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott
William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris
Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark
Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean
Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton
George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
BILL OF RIGHTS
The Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known. They were introduced by James Madison to the First United States Congress in 1789 as a series of articles, and came into effect on December 15, 1791, when they had been ratified by three-fourths of the States. An agreement to create the Bill of Rights helped to secure ratification of the Constitution itself. Thomas Jefferson was a supporter of the Bill of Rights.
The Bill of Rights prohibits Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, guarantees free speech, free press, free assembly and association and the right to petition government for redress, forbids infringement of "...the right of the people to keep and bear Arms...", and prohibits the federal government from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. In federal criminal cases, it requires indictment by a grand jury for any capital or "infamous crime", guarantees a speedy, public trial with an impartial jury composed of members of the state or judicial district in which the crime occurred, and prohibits double jeopardy. In addition, the Bill of Rights states that "the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people," and reserves all powers not specifically granted to the federal government to the people or the States. Most of these restrictions were later applied to the states by a series of decisions applying the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which was ratified in 1868, after the American Civil War.
Text of the Bill of Rights
Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent starts of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
First Amendment – Establishment Clause, Free Exercise Clause; freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly; right to petition
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Second Amendment – Militia (United States), Sovereign state, Right to keep and bear arms.
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 
Third Amendment – Protection from quartering of troops.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Fourth Amendment – Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Fifth Amendment – due process, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, eminent domain.
No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Sixth Amendment – Trial by jury and rights of the accused; Confrontation Clause, speedy trial, public trial, right to counsel
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
Seventh Amendment – Civil trial by jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Eighth Amendment – Prohibition of excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Ninth Amendment – Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Constitution.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Tenth Amendment – Powers of States and people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
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